SDRP Journal of Earth Sciences & Environmental Studies

Removing of Hardness Salts from Groundwater by Thermogenic Synthesis Zeolite


Abd El Hay Ali Farrag1, Th. Abdel Moghny2,Atef Mohamed Gad3 Saleem Sayed Saleem4, Mahmoud Fathy5, Muhamed Atef Ahmed6
1.Assiut university faculty of science geology department, Mob. 01006825194
3, 4, 6Assiut and new valley company for water and waste water fax No: 088229347
2, 5Applications Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), 1 Ahmed El-Zomer, Nasr City, Box. No. 11727, Cairo, Egypt


Atef Mohamed Gad, Removing of Hardness Salts from Groundwater by Thermogenic Synthesis Zeolite(2016)SDRP Journal of Earth Sciences & Environmental Studies 1(3)


Abstract Calcium and magnesium hardness salts in groundwater are very common and caused major problems for drinking and household purposes. This study aims to synthesize zeolite-4A from kaolinite for removing the total hardness ions from Assiut Governorate groundwater wells. Therefore, the kaolin was calcinated hydrothermally through the metakaolinization and zeolitization processes to produce crystalline zeolite-4A. The chemical composition andmorphology ofcrystalline zeolite-4A were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then the column experiments were conducted to study the performance of crystalline salt-4A as ion exchange and investigate their operation parameters and regeneration conditions. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to predict the adsorption capacity and time required for 50% breakthrough curves. The effects of initial concentrations of 550 mg/l for total Ca+2 and Mg+2 hardness, feed flow rate of 10-30 ml/min, and height range of 1.0– 4.0 cm on the breakthrough behavior of the adsorption system were studied. The obtained results indicated that the synthesized zeolite-A4 can remove total hardness (Ca+2 + Mg+2) ions from groundwater to the permissible limit according to the standards drinking water law.

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