An Assessment of the Distribution of Potentially Harmful Trace Elements in Bedrocks and Stream Sediments of Okemesi-Ijero Area, Southwestern, Nigeria


Asowata Timothy Iyobosa, Adeoti Blessing


Ayodele Olusiji Samuel, An Assessment of the Distribution of Potentially Harmful Trace Elements in Bedrocks and Stream Sediments of Okemesi-Ijero Area, Southwestern, Nigeria(2018)SDRP Journal of Earth Sciences & Environmental Studies 3(1)


Bedrocks and Stream sediments are important component of the ecosystems. However, geogenic and anthropogenic effect increases potentially harmful trace elements (PTEs), causing contamination of stream sediments in catchment areas underlain by their characteristic bedrocks. Assessment of the concentration of PTEs is necessary in order to protect and sustain the ecosystems and human consumption of the products from it. The concentrations of thirteen PTEs were determined in the stream sediments and bedrocks using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multivariate statistics and principal component analyses were used to identify and characterize trace elemental associations in the system. Trace elements ranged from 0.01 mg/kg in Cd to 1591.00 mg/kg in Mn. Spatial variations in sediment geochemistry were observed from one sample location to the other. The geochemistry of the rock samples such as granite, quartzite and banded gneiss were far lower in metal concentration compare to that of the stream sediments. The concentrations of U (0.40 – 14.40 mg/kg), Mn (51.00 - 1591 mg/kg) and La (7.10 – 364.90 mg/kg) were of great concern to the ecosystem because of their relatively higher values in the stream sediments compared with the average earth crust background limits. The results of enrichment factor and ecological risk index showed that Cu, Pb, As and Cd did not raise any eco-toxicological concern. Most of the other elements did not show much contamination load as compared with the average earth crust background limits. Metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, As, Cd, La, Th and V were positively correlated with each other (r = 0.51-0.95), which indicated analogous sources of geochemical characteristics. However, this study showed that anthropogenic activities greatly contributed to enrichment of harmful trace elements in the drainage system of the catchment areas.


  1. Affaton, P., Rahaman, M.A., Trompette, R and Sougy, J. (1991). The Dahomeyide Orogen: tectonothermal evolution and relationships with the Volta Basin. In: R.D. Dallmeyer, and J.P. L?corch? , J.P. (Eds). The West African Orogens and Circum-Atlantic Correlatives. IUGS- IGCP-UNESCO Project 233, Springer-VErlag, pp. 107-122.

    View Article           

  2. Ajibade, A.C., Fitches, W.R and Wright, J.B. (1980). The Zungeru Mylonites, the identification of a major tectonic unit in the N.W Nigeria Basement. Revue de Geol. Phys., 21 (5) :359-383.

  3. Ako, B.D., Ajayi T.R., and Alabi., A.O. (1978). A geoelectrical study of Ifewara area. Journal of Mining Geology 15: 84-89.

  4. Anifowose, A.Y.B. (2004). Remote sensing analysis of Ifewara-Zungeru megalinear in Nigeria. PhD thesis, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria,169p.

  5. Bergamaschi1, P, Krol, M, Dentener, F, Vermeulen, A, Meinhard, F, Graul, R, Ramonet, M, Peters W, and Dlugokencky, E. J (2005) Inverse modelling of national and European CH4 emissions usingthe atmospheric zoom model TM5. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2431?2460.

  6. Caby, R and Boesse, J.M. (2001). Pan African nappe system in southwestern Nigeria: the Ife-Ilesha schist belt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 33, 211-225. 80060-9

    View Article           

  7. Campbell, S., Harada, R. M. & Li, Q.-X. (2008). Chryseobacteriumarothri sp. nov. isolated from the kidneys of a pufferfish. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58, 290?293. PMid:18175724

    View Article      PubMed/NCBI     

  8. Chen, M., and L.Q. Ma. 2001. Comparison of aqua-regia methods for 20 Florida soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65(2):491-499

    View Article           

  9. Dalman, ?., A. Demirak, and A. Balc? (2006). Detemination of heavy metals (Cd, Pb) and trace elements (Cu, Zn) in sediments and fish of the Southeastern Aegean Sea (Turkey) by atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chemistry. 95: 157-162.

    View Article           

  10. Davies, O. A. and Abowei, J.F.N. 2009. Sediment quality of lower reaches of Okpoka

  11. Elueze, A.A. (2000). Compositional appraisal and petrotectonic significance of the Imelu banded ferruginous rock in the Ilesha schist belt, southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 36(1): 9-18.

  12. Folami, S.L., (1992). Interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies in Iwaraja area, southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 28 (2): 391-396.

  13. Gandu, A.H., Ojo, S.B., Ajakaye., D.E.,(1986). A gravity study of the Precambrian in the Malufashi area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Tectonophysics 126: 181-194. 90227-1

    View Article           

  14. Hubbard, P.H., (1966). A provisional report on the geology of Sheet 262(Apomu) and parts of sheet 263(Ondo). Geological Survey of Nigeria report. No. 1341(Unpublished).

  15. Hubbard, F.H., (1975). Precambrian crustal development in Western Nigeria; indications from Iwo region. Geological Society of America Bulletin. 86, pp. 548-56 86<548:PCDIWN>2.0.CO;2

    View Article           

  16. Hansen, PJ, Evane DW, Colb, DR. Zdanowier VS. 1993. Assessment of elemental concentration in estuarine and coastal environment based on geological and statistical modelling of sediments. Mar Environ Res 36, 237-266. 90091-D

    View Article           

  17. Kljakovi?-Ga?pi? Z, Bogner D, Ujevi? I (2009) Trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni) in sediment of the submarine Pit Dragon Ear (Soline Bay, Rogoznica, Croatia). Environ Geol 58:751?760. doi:10.1007/s00254-008-1549-9

    View Article           

  18. Klemm, D.D., Schneider, W. and Wagner, B. (1984). The Precambrian metavolcano- sedimentary sequence east of Ife and Ilesha, S.W Nigeria. 'A Nigerian greenstone belt' Journal of African Earth Sciences, (2) 2 : 161-176.

  19. Laluraj, C.M. and Nair, S.M. (2006). Geochemical index of trace metals in the surficial sediments from the western continental shelf of India, Arabian Sea. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 28: 509-518 PMid:17094013

    View Article      PubMed/NCBI     

  20. Mikoshiba U.M, Imai N, Terashima S, Tachibana Y, Okay T 2006. Geochemical mapping in Northern Honshu, Japan, Applied Geochemistry 21: 492-514.

    View Article           

  21. Nguyen X., Tran M., Le T. and Paperbrock J. (2017). An Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination on the Surface Sediment of Seagrass Beds at the Khanh Hoa Coast, Vietnam. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol DOI 10.1007/s00128-017-2191-6 PMid:29032387

    View Article      PubMed/NCBI     

  22. Odeyemi, I.B., (1993). A Comparative study of remote sensing images of the structure of the Okemesi fold belt, Nigeria. ITC Journal, 1931-1:77-81

  23. Okonkwo, C.T. (1992). Structural geology of basement rocks of Jebba area, Nigeria Journal of Mining and Geology, 28 (2): 203-209

  24. Oyinloye, A.O. and Odeyemi, I.B. (2001). The geochemistry, tectonic setting and origin of the massive melanocratic amphibolite in the Ilesha schist belt, southwestern Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 7 (1) : 85-90.

    View Article           

  25. Rahaman, M.A. (1988). Recent advances in the Study of the basement complex of Nigeria. In: Precambrian Geology of Nigeria. Geological Survey of Nigeria. 11-43.

  26. Samarghandi, M.R., Nouri, J., Mesdaghinia, A.R., Mahvi, A.H., Naseri, S., Vaezi, F., 2007. Efficiency removal of phenol, lead and cadmium by means of UV/TiO2/H2O2 processes, Int. J. Environ. Sci, Tech., 4 (1), 10-25.

  27. Seshan, B.R.R., U. Natesan., K, Deepthi. 2010. Geochemical and Statistical approach for evaluation of heavy metal pollution in core sediments in southeast coast of India. Int. J. Environ. Sci, Tech., 7 (2), 291-306.

  28. Turekian, K.K. and Wedephol, K.H. 1961. Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth's crust. Bullettin of the Geological Society of American 72: 175-192 72[175:DOTEIS]2.0.CO;2

    View Article           

We publish articles under Creative Common License (CC-BY) that ensure that all published papers are immediately and permanently available online for everyone, worldwide.
Submit Manuscript