Journal of Plant Science

ISSN: 2573-7988

Impact Factor: 0.583


Page No: 53-58

Seed Biology of Erythrophleum Suaveolens (Guill. and Perr.) Brenan: A Threatened Medicinal Plant


Edward Missanjo, Seed Biology of Erythrophleum Suaveolens (Guill. and Perr.) Brenan: A Threatened Medicinal Plant(2017)SDRP Journal of Plant Science 2(1):53-58


Background: Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan is a highly threatened medicinal plant. The plant population is at a blink of extinction due to high exploitation for medicinal uses along with seed dormancy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to conserve this medicinal plant both in situ and ex situ. This study was conducted to understand the seed biology of this important species so as to work the conservation strategy.


Methods: An experiment was conducted at a green house. Seeds were subjected to ten presowing seed treatments methods, namely, immersion in hot water (100oC) for 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours, immersion in cold water at room temperature for 24 hours, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid (0.3M H2SO4) for 1 minute, 5 minutes and 10 minutes, scarification by mechanically nicking using scalpel, scarification by mechanically nicking using scalpel followed by immersion in cold water at room temperature for 24 hours, and a control where seeds were sown without any treatment.


Results: The results showed that seeds of E. suaveolens exhibits long dormancy and demands pre-treatment. Scarified seeds through nicking attained a germination of 93%, a high germination rate of 9.8 seeds per day and a high germination speed index (GSI) of 11.4.


Conclusion: It is recommended to use scarification by nicking as a pretreatment method on E. suaveolens seeds in order to enhance germination percentage, rate and speed for conservation of the species.  


Key words: Erythrophleum suaveolens, Dormancy, Medicinal plant; Seed biology; Threatened plant



  1. Jamir SL., Deb CR., Jamir NS., 2016. Studies on reproductive biology and seed biology of Panax pseudoginseng wall. (Araliacease): A threatened medicinal plant. International Journal of Conservation Science 7(4): 1127 ? 1134.

  2. Missanjo E., Chioza A., Kulapani C., 2014. Effects of different pretreatments to the seed on seedling emergence and growth of Acacia polyacantha. International Journal of Forestry Research Volume 2014, Article ID 583069, 6 pages.

  3. Dhupper R., 2013. Effect of seed pre-treatment on survival percentage of three desert tree species. Journal of Environmental Science, Computer Science and Engineering and Technology 2: 776?786.

  4. Murali KS., 1997. Patterns of seed size, germination and seed viability of tropical tree species in Southern India. Biotropica 29(3): 271?279.

    View Article           
  5. Pullinger JS., Kitchen AM., 1982. Trees of Malawi. Blantyre Printing and Publishing, Blantyre. PMid:6960928

  6. Burkill HM., 1985. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Volume 3. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  7. Betti JL, 2002. Medicinal plants sold in Yaound? markets Cameroon. African Study Monographs 23(2): 47 ? 64.

  8. van Andel T., Myren B., van Onselen S., 2012. Ghana's herbal market. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 140(2): 368 ? 378. PMid:22306470

    View Article      PubMed/NCBI     
  9. Hardcastle PD., 1978. A preliminary Silvicultural classification of Malawi. Forestry Research Record 57, FRIM, Zomba.

  10. Abideen MZ., Gopikumar K., Jamaludheen J., 1993. Effect of Seed Character and its Nutrient content on vigour of Seedlings in Pongamia pinnata and Tamarindas indica. My Forest Journal 29: 225?230.

  11. ISTA., 2010. International Rules for Seed Testing. Bassersdorf, Switzerland.

  12. Maguire JD., 1962. Speed of germination aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergency and vigor. Crop Science 2:176?1177.

    View Article           
  13. Fowels HA., 1988. The effect of seed and stock sizes on survival and early growth of Ponderosa and Jeffrey pines. Journal of Forestry 51: 504?5507.

  14. Payne RW., Murray DA., Harding SA., Baird DB., Soutar DM., 2014. Genstat for Windows Introduction, 17th edition. VSN International, Hemel Hempstead, UK.

  15. Nasr SMH., Savadkoohi SK., Ahmadi E., 2013. Effect of different seed treatments on dormancy breaking and germination in three species in arid and semi-arid lands. Forest Science and Practice 15(2): 130 ? 136.

    View Article           
  16. Baskin CC., Baskin JM., 2001. Seeds, Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, California.

  17. Schmidt L., 2000. Guide to Handling of Tropical and Subtropical Forest Seeds. Danida Forest Seed Centre, Humlebaeck, Denmark.

  18. Kobmoo B., Hellum AK., 1984. Hot water and acid improve the germination of Cassia siamea Britt. Seeds. The Embryon 1(1): 27 ? 33.

  19. Missanjo E., Maya C., Kapira D., Banda H., Kamanga-Thole G., 2013. Effect of seed size and pretreatment methods on germination of Albizia lebbeck. ISRN Botany, volume 2013, Article ID 969026, 4 pages.

  20. Hanson JD., Johnson HA., 2005. Germination of switch grass under various temperature and pH regimes. Seed Technology 27(2): 203 ? 210.

  21. Fenner M., Thompson K., 2005. The ecology of seeds. Cambridge University Press, UK.

    View Article           
  22. Nikoleave MG., 1977. Factors affecting the seed dormancy pattern. In: Khan, A.A. (ed.): Physiology and biochemistry of seed dormancy and germination, North-Holland Publishing, pp. 51 ? 76.

  23. Yi GL., Luo JH., Lin GR., Xu FH., Liang QH., 2004. Effects of different treatment on germination of Erythrophleum fordii seeds. Journal of Fujian Forestry Science and Technology 31: 68?70.

Journal Recent Articles