Competitive antagonists (CAs) of ionotropic GABA receptors (GABARs) reportedly exhibit insecticidal activity and have potential for development as novel insecticides for overcoming emerging resistance to traditional GABAR-targeting insecticides. Our previous studies demonstrated that 4,5-disubstituted 3-isoxazolols or 3-isothiazolols are an important class of insect GABAR CAs. In the present study, we synthesized a series of 4-aryl-5-carbamoyl-3-isoxazolols and examined their antagonism of insect GABARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Several of these 3-isoxazolols exhibited potent antagonistic activities against housefly and common cutworm GABARs, with IC50 values in the low-micromolar range in both receptors. 4-(3-Amino-4-methylphenyl)-5-carbamoyl-3-isoxazolol (3u) displayed the highest antagonism, with IC50 values of 2.0 and 0.9 μM in housefly and common cutworm GABARs, respectively. Most of the synthesized 3-isoxazolols showed moderate larvicidal activities against common cutworms, with more than 50% mortality at 100 μg/g. These results indicate that 4-monocyclic aryl-5-carbamoyl-3-isoxazolol is a promising scaffold for insect GABAR CA discovery and provide important information for the design and development of GABAR-targeting insecticides with a novel mode of action.