4-Nonylphenol effects on rat testis and sertoli cells determined by spectrochemical techniques coupled with chemometric analysis.


School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE, UK. Electronic address: [Email]


Herein, vibrational spectroscopy has been applied for qualitative identification of biomolecular alterations that occur in cells and tissues following chemical treatment. Towards this end, we combined attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy to assess testicular toxicology after 4-nonylphenol (NP) exposure, an estrogenic endocrine disruptor affecting testicular function in rats and other species. Rats aged 21, 35 or 50 days received NP at intra-peritoneal doses of 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg for 20 consecutive days. Primary Sertoli cells (SCs) were treated with NP at various concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 μM) for 12 h. Post-exposure, testicular cells, interstitial tissue and SCs were interrogated respectively using spectrochemical techniques coupled with multivariate analysis. Distinct biomolecular segregation between the NP-exposed samples vs. control were observed based on infrared (IR) spectral regions of 3200-2800 cm-1 and 1800-900 cm-1, and the Raman spectral region of 1800-900 cm-1. For in vivo experiments, the main wavenumbers responsible for segregation varied significantly among the three age classes. The main IR and Raman band differences between NP-exposed and control groups were observed for Amide (proteins), lipids and DNA/RNA. An interesting finding was that the peptide aggregation level, Amide Ӏ-to-Amide II ratio, and phosphate-to-carbohydrate ratio were considerably reduced in ex vivo NP-exposed testicular cells or SCs in vitro. This study demonstrates that ATR-FTIR and Raman spectroscopy techniques can be applied towards analysing NP-induced testicular biomolecular alterations.


4-Nonylphenol exposure,ATR-FTIR spectroscopy,Multivariate analysis,Raman spectroscopy,Sertoli cells,Testicular toxicity,

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