A Complete Mass Spectrometry (MS)-Based Peptidomic Description of Gluten Peptides Generated During In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion of Durum Wheat: Implication for Celiac Disease.


Food and Drug Department, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 27/A, 43124, Parma, Italy. [Email]


Resistance of gluten to gastrointestinal digestion is involved in immune-mediated adverse reactions to wheat, since several peptides produced by the incomplete digestion are able to trigger, in predisposed individuals, the immune response responsible, for instance, of celiac disease (CD) and other adverse reactions. Even if several peptides have been identified, an exhaustive description of the peptidome generated by wheat digestion is lacking. To this end, in the present work, durum wheat proteins were fractionated, digested, and then subjected to various proteomic techniques, including single stage and multiple stage mass spectrometry (MS) (SDS-PAGE, UPLC/ESI-MS, UPLC/ESI-MS/MS, and LTQ-Orbitrap). Based on SDS-PAGE, although proteins were severely degraded after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, some differences were observed among protein profile of the different digests. Through untargeted UPLC techniques, 227 peptide sequences were identified, with only few sequences shared by the different digests. In particular, 9 gluten peptides involved in CD were identified. Based on target proteomic, the quantification of these peptides revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences among the different extracts. Taken together, all the proteomic tools confirmed that gluten digestion is closely related to the matrix regardless of wheat genotype.


Celiac disease,Digestion,Gluten,SDS-PAGE,UPLC-MS,UPLC-MS/MS,