Cembranoids are carbocyclic diterpenes comprising four isoprene units and are natural products with a parent skeleton consisting of a 14-membered ring. They have gained wide interest in recent years and are a major hotspot in the research of natural product chemistry. Since 1962, various tobacco cembranoid diterpenes have been identified. This review systematically discusses and summarises the excellent antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic and neuroprotective activities of tobacco cembranoid diterpenes. These compounds show potential to be developed as botanical fungicides, cytotoxic drugs and drugs for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are relatively few studies on the structure⁻activity relationship (SAR) of tobacco cembranoid diterpenes. Therefore, future studies should focus on their structural modification, SAR and biogenic relationships.