A Review on Haematococcus pluvialis Bioprocess Optimization of Green and Red Stage Culture Conditions for the Production of Natural Astaxanthin.

Affiliation

Oslan SNH(1)(2), Shoparwe NF(1), Yusoff AH(1), Rahim AA(1), Chang CS(1), Tan JS(2)(3), Oslan SN(4)(5), Arumugam K(6), Ariff AB(2)(6), Sulaiman AZ(1), Mohamed MS(2)(6).
Author information:
(1)Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology, University Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, Jeli 17600, Kelantan, Malaysia.
(2)Bioprocessing and Biomanufacturing Research Centre, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.
(3)School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, George 11800, Penang, Malaysia.
(4)Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.
(5)Enzyme Technology Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.
(6)Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Abstract

As the most recognizable natural secondary carotenoid astaxanthin producer, the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis cultivation is performed via a two-stage process. The first is dedicated to biomass accumulation under growth-favoring conditions (green stage), and the second stage is for astaxanthin evolution under various stress conditions (red stage). This mini-review discusses the further improvement made on astaxanthin production by providing an overview of recent works on H. pluvialis, including the valuable ideas for bioprocess optimization on cell growth, and the current stress-exerting strategies for astaxanthin pigment production. The effects of nutrient constituents, especially nitrogen and carbon sources, and illumination intensity are emphasized during the green stage. On the other hand, the significance of the nitrogen depletion strategy and other exogenous factors comprising salinity, illumination, and temperature are considered for the astaxanthin inducement during the red stage. In short, any factor that interferes with the cellular processes that limit the growth or photosynthesis in the green stage could trigger the encystment process and astaxanthin formation during the red stage. This review provides an insight regarding the parameters involved in bioprocess optimization for high-value astaxanthin biosynthesis from H. pluvialis.