The present investigation attempts to compare the pharmacological properties and phytochemical profile of four extracts (ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, methanol, and water) of Asphodeline taurica (Pall.) Endl. roots from Bulgaria and Turkey. The Bulgarian ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH, CUPRAC, and phosphomolybdenum assay, and strongest inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The Turkish aqueous extract exhibited the strongest ABTS scavenging and ferric reducing power while its methanol extract was the most effective acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitor. On the other hand, the Turkish dichloromethane extract showed the highest lipase inhibition. UHPLC/Orbitrap MS analysis showed a wide array of individual phenolics; six free anthraquinones, two bianthraquinones, three bianthracenes, three anthraquinone glycosides and one bianthracen glycoside were identified. The present data suggest that A. taurica roots can be considered as a valuable source of biologically active phytocompounds with functional properties for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.