A novel fluorescence probe based on graphene-aminofluorescein (GAF) for sensing glutamate is prepared by modifying graphene oxide (GO) with 5-aminofluorescein (AF), and shows high sensitivity and selectivity. The strong fluorescence of the GAF probe is quenched in the presence of glutamate, and the quenching exhibits a good linear relationship with the glutamate concentration within the range of 1-45 mg/L. In bovine serum, the accurate quantitation of glutamate is possible within the range of 6 mg/L to 30 mg/L. At the pH of 3.32 (close to the isoelectric point of glutamate), GAF can selectively detect glutamate in preference to other amino acids. The high sensitivity and specificity of this sensor enable a new method for the detection of glutamate in aqueous solutions and serums.