A mini systematic review of prognostic factors in elderly patients with tuberculosis.


Internal Medicine, National Hospital Organization Nishi-Beppu Hospital, 4548 Tsurumi, Beppu, Oita 874-0840, Japan; Respiratory Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]


BACKGROUND : While advanced age has been suggested as a prognostic factor in patients with tuberculosis, the characteristics associated with a poor outcome in elderly patients have remained unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the risk factors for a poor outcome in elderly patients with tuberculosis.
METHODS : We identified 1255 studies published between 1919 and 2017 from the PubMed database by using combinations of the keywords "tuberculosis [Title/Abstract]" and "elderly [Title/Abstract]". Full texts of the studies that met the inclusion criteria were further evaluated by two independent investigators.
RESULTS : even retrospective cohort studies were included in this systematic review. More advanced age, comorbidities, and nutritional status were likely to be prognostic factors in Taiwan (aging country) and Japan (super-aged country), while human immunodeficiency virus infection and severe tuberculosis were associated with a poor outcome in low-income countries. Two studies from Taiwan investigated the prognostic factors of tuberculosis-specific death and non-tuberculosis-specific death separately, but no significant differences were found in the factors between the two types of death.
CONCLUSIONS : The prognostic factors of tuberculosis in elderly patients varied according to the income levels of the countries. The factors in Taiwan and Japan were mainly associated with host factors, irrespective of the cause of death, which may reflect senile deterioration due to old age.