A neutral polysaccharide with a triple helix structure from ginger: Characterization and immunomodulatory activity.

Affiliation

Yang X(1), Wei S(2), Lu X(1), Qiao X(3), Simal-Gandara J(4), Capanoglu E(5), Woźniak Ł(6), Zou L(7), Cao H(8), Xiao J(9), Tang X(10), Li N(11).
Author information:
(1)Key Laboratory of Food Processing Technology and Quality Control in Shandong Province, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China.
(2)Shandong Foreign Trade Vocational College, Tai'an 271018, China.
(3)Key Laboratory of Food Processing Technology and Quality Control in Shandong Province, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China. Electronic address: [Email]
(4)Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo - Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]
(5)Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address: [Email]
(6)Department of Fruit and Vegetable Product Technology, Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, 36 Rakowiecka Street, 02532 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: [Email]
(7)Key Laboratory of Coarse Cereal Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China. Electronic address: [Email]
(8)College of Food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China. Electronic address: [Email]
(9)Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo - Ourense Campus, E-32004 Ourense, Spain; College of Food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China; International Research Center for Food Nutrition and Safety, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China. Electronic address: [Email]
(10)Key Laboratory of Food Processing Technology and Quality Control in Shandong Province, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China. Electronic address: [Email]
(11)Key Laboratory of Food Processing Technology and Quality Control in Shandong Province, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

A neutral ginger polysaccharide fraction (NGP) was isolated from ginger, and its primary structures and immunomodulatory activity were investigated. The results showed that NGP had a low molecular weight of 6305 Da. NGP principally consisted of glucose (93.88%) together with minor levels of galactose (3.27%) and arabinose (1.67%). Besides, results of methylation analysis and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that NGP was α-glucan which had the main chain of 1,4-linked α-d-Glcp and α-d-Glcp residues branched at C-6 position which was different from the common triple helical β-glucans. NGP also displayed a remarkable immunological activity on the RAW264.7 cells in vitro. It could significantly enhance the proliferation of macrophages without cytotoxicity and increase the production of immune substances (NO, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6). The secretion at the concentration of 200 μg/mL was 29.41 μM, 1496.71, 44.30 and 1889.83 pg/mL for each substance, respectively. The results indicated that NGP could be a potential immune agent and might provide meaningful information for further chain conformation and immune mechanism research.