Gevertz JL(1), Greene JM(2), Sanchez-Tapia CH(3), Sontag ED(4). Author information:
(1)Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing,
NJ, United States.
(2)Department of Mathematics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, United States.
(3)Department of Mathematics, College of Natural and Behavioral Sciences,
California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, CA, United States.
(4)Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of
Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, United States; Laboratory
of Systems Pharmacology, Program in Therapeutic Science, Harvard Medical School,
Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address: [Email]
Motivated by the current COVID-19 epidemic, this work introduces an epidemiological model in which separate compartments are used for susceptible and asymptomatic "socially distant" populations. Distancing directives are represented by rates of flow into these compartments, as well as by a reduction in contacts that lessens disease transmission. The dynamical behavior of this system is analyzed, under various different rate control strategies, and the sensitivity of the basic reproduction number to various parameters is studied. One of the striking features of this model is the existence of a critical implementation delay (CID) in issuing distancing mandates: while a delay of about two weeks does not have an appreciable effect on the peak number of infections, issuing mandates even slightly after this critical time results in a far greater incidence of infection. Thus, there is a nontrivial but tight "window of opportunity" for commencing social distancing in order to meet the capacity of healthcare resources. However, if one wants to also delay the timing of peak infections - so as to take advantage of potential new therapies and vaccines - action must be taken much faster than the CID. Different relaxation strategies are also simulated, with surprising results. Periodic relaxation policies suggest a schedule which may significantly inhibit peak infective load, but that this schedule is very sensitive to parameter values and the schedule's frequency. Furthermore, we considered the impact of steadily reducing social distancing measures over time. We find that a too-sudden reopening of society may negate the progress achieved under initial distancing guidelines, but the negative effects can be mitigated if the relaxation strategy is carefully designed.
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