A positive effect of egg consumption on macular pigment and healthy vision: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.


Khalighi Sikaroudi M(1), Saraf-Bank S(2), Clayton ZS(3), Soltani S(4).
Author information:
(1)Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
(2)Food Security Research Center, Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
(3)Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA.
(4)Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.


Increasing macular pigment optical density (MPOD) as a result of increased macular concentration of lutein and zeaxanthin may reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the consumption of eggs, a rich source of dietary lutein and zeaxanthin, influences MPOD and serum lutein. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science up to July 2020, for relevant randomized clinical trials. Using a random-effects model, pooled weighted mean differences, and standard deviations (SDs) for each outcome were obtained. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed by the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. A meta-analysis of five trials (296 participants) revealed that egg consumption significantly increased MPOD (weighted mean differences (WMD): +0.037; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.069; P = 0.027) and serum lutein (WMD: +0.150 μmol L̂-1; 95% CI: 0.037, 0.263; P = 0.009). Subgroup analyses showed that egg consumption: (a) had a larger effect on MPOD in studies with a parallel design; and (b) increased serum lutein to a greater extent in a healthy population. We did not detect any heterogeneity between studies. Daily egg consumption has beneficial effects on MPOD and serum lutein is inversely associated with reduced AMD progression. Further clinical trials are required to confirm the results of this study. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.