A preliminary investigation of 942 organic micro-pollutants in the atmosphere in waste processing and urban areas, northern Vietnam: Levels, potential sources, and risk assessment.

Affiliation

Center of Advanced Technology for the Environment (CATE), Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Of 942 organic micro-pollutants screened, 167 compounds were detected at least once in the atmosphere in some primitive waste processing sites and an urban area in northern Vietnam by using a polyurethane foam-based passive air sampling (PUF-PAS) method and an Automated Identification and Quantification System with a Database (AIQS-DB) for GC-MS. Total concentrations of organic pollutants were higher in samples collected from an urban area of Hanoi city (2300-2600 ng m-3) as compared with those from an end-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling area in Bac Giang (900-1700 ng m-3) and a waste recycling cooperative in Thai Nguyen (870-1300 ng m-3). Domestic chemicals (e.g., n-alkanes, phthalate ester plasticizers, and synthetic phenolic antioxidants) dominated the organic pollutant patterns in all the samples, especially in the urban area. Pesticides (e.g., permethrins, chlorpyrifos, and propiconazole) were found in the atmosphere around the ELV sites at more elevated concentrations than the other areas. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in the Bac Giang and Thai Nguyen facilities were significantly higher than those measured in Hanoi urban houses, probably due to the waste processing activities. Daily intake doses of organic pollutants via inhalation were estimated for waste processing workers and urban residents. This study shall provide preliminary data on the environmental occurrence, potential emission sources, and effects of multiple classes of organic pollutants in urban and waste processing areas in northern Vietnam.

Keywords

AIQS–DB,Northern Vietnam,Organic micro-pollutants,PUF–PAS,Urban area,Waste processing area,