The basic requirement of human beings is better health but the serious health effects and numerous infections caused by rapid growth of harmful pathogens resulting in a large number of deaths and is a significant challenge to modern science. Microbes infecting humans can be stopped in two ways: disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. There is considerable interest from both academics and industry in antimicrobial polymers due to their favorable properties. Maleic anhydride incredibly bears diverse commercial applications due to its versatile chemical structure. Maleic anhydride is an electron-acceptor monomer where the property comes from reactive double bonds and also reactive anhydride groups. This review presents the development of antimicrobial polymers involving maleic anhydride in the macromolecular structure. This article also addresses the applications of antimicrobial polymers with maleic anhydride in numerous sectors.