A unique combination adjuvant modulates immune responses preventing vaccine-enhanced pulmonary histopathology after a single dose vaccination with fusion protein and challenge with respiratory syncytial virus.
Alum adjuvanted formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccination resulted in enhanced respiratory disease in young children upon natural infection. Here, we investigated the adjuvant effects of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and oligodeoxynucleotide CpG (CpG) on vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease after fusion (F) protein prime vaccination and RSV challenge in infant and adult mouse models. Combination CpG + MPL adjuvant in RSV F protein single dose priming of infant and adult age mice was found to promote the induction of IgG2a isotype antibodies and neutralizing activity, and lung viral clearance after challenge. CpG + MPL adjuvanted F protein (Fp) priming of infant and adult age mice was effective in avoiding lung histopathology, in reducing interleukin-4+ CD4 T cells and cellular infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils after RSV challenge. This study suggests that combination CpG and MPL adjuvant in RSV subunit vaccination might contribute to priming protective immune responses and preventing inflammatory RSV disease after infection.