Department of Biomedical Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, United States; Department of Orthopedics, Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI 02912, United States. Electronic address: [Email]
Accurately assessing the dynamic kinematics of the skeletal wrist could advance our understanding of the normal and pathological wrist. Biplane videoradiography (BVR) has allowed investigators to study dynamic activities in the knee, hip, and shoulder joint; however, currently, BVR has not been utilized for the wrist joint because of the challenges associated with imaging multiple overlapping bones. Therefore, our aim was to develop a BVR procedure and to quantify its accuracy for evaluation of wrist kinematics. BVR was performed on six cadaveric forearms for one neutral static and six dynamic tasks, including flexion-extension, radial-ulnar deviation, circumduction, pronation, supination, and hammering. Optical motion capture (OMC) served as the gold standard for assessing accuracy. We propose a feedforward tracking methodology, which uses a combined model of metacarpals (second and third) for initialization of the third metacarpal (MC3). BVR-calculated kinematic parameters were found to be consistent with the OMC-calculated parameters, and the BVR/OMC agreement had submillimeter and sub-degree biases in tracking individual bones as well as the overall joint's rotation and translation. All dynamic tasks (except pronation task) showed a limit of agreement within 1.5° for overall rotation, and within 1.3 mm for overall translations. Pronation task had a 2.1° and 1.4 mm limit of agreement for rotation and translation measurement. The poorest precision was achieved in calculating the pronation-supination angle, and radial-ulnar and volar-dorsal translational components, although they were sub-degree and submillimeter. The methodology described herein may assist those interested in examining the complexities of skeletal wrist function during dynamic tasks.