: Obesity is one of the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It is closely related to metabolic disturbances in the adipose tissue that primarily functions as a fat reservoir. For this reason, adipose tissue is considered as the primary site for initiation and aggravation of obesity and T2DM. As a key endocrine organ, the adipose tissue communicates with other organs, such as the brain, liver, muscle, and pancreas, for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Two different types of adipose tissues-the white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT)-secrete bioactive peptides and proteins, known as "adipokines" and "batokines," respectively. Some of them have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects, while others have harmful inflammatory effects. Recently, "exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs)" were identified as novel adipokines, as adipose tissue-derived exosomal miRNAs can affect other organs. In the present review, we discuss the role of adipose-derived secretory factors-adipokines, batokines, and exosomal miRNA-in obesity and T2DM. It will provide new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in disturbances of adipose-derived factors and will support the development of adipose-derived factors as potential therapeutic targets for obesity and T2DM.