The dyeing industry is one of the most polluting in the world. The adsorption of dyes by polymeric matrixes can be used to minimize the discharge of dyes into the environment. In the present study, chitosan-NaOH and β-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymers were used to remove the dye Direct Blue 78 from a wastewater model. To understand the adsorption behavior of Direct Blue 78 onto the polymers, adsorption rate and maximum adsorption capacity were calculated using kinetic tests and isotherm curves respectively. The kinetic data and mechanism of the adsorption process were analyzed by three models and the equilibrium data by three adsorption isotherms; also the different thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Results showed that the adsorption process follows pseudo-second-order kinetics in both polymers and the Langmuir isotherm best-fitted data for chitosan-NaOH polymer and the Freundlich isotherm for the β-CDs-EPI polymer. The adsorption process is exothermic in both cases and spontaneous for the β-CDs-EPI polymer to a certain temperature and not spontaneous for the chitosan-NaOH polymer and β-CDs-EPI polymer at higher temperatures. The complementary action of an advanced oxidation process eliminated >99% of the dye from water. The coupled process seems to be suitable for reducing the environmental impact of the dyeing industry.