Agastache rugosa ethanol extract suppresses bone loss via induction of osteoblast differentiation with alteration of gut microbiota.

Affiliation

Hong S(1), Cha KH(2), Kwon DY(3), Son YJ(3), Kim SM(3), Choi JH(4), Yoo G(5), Nho CW(6).
Author information:
(1)Smart Farm Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology
(KIST), Gangneung Institute of Natural Products, Gangneung, Gangwon-do 25451, Republic of Korea; KHU-KIST Department of Converging Science and Technology, Graduate School Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.
(2)Natural Product Informatics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangneung, Gangwon-do 25451, Republic of Korea.
(3)Smart Farm Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology
(KIST), Gangneung Institute of Natural Products, Gangneung, Gangwon-do 25451, Republic of Korea.
(4)KHU-KIST Department of Converging Science and Technology, Graduate School Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.
(5)Smart Farm Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology
(KIST), Gangneung Institute of Natural Products, Gangneung, Gangwon-do 25451, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: [Email]
(6)Smart Farm Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology
(KIST), Gangneung Institute of Natural Products, Gangneung, Gangwon-do 25451, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is a metabolic skeletal disease characterized by bone loss and an increased risk of fractures. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of Agastache rugosa on postmenopausal osteoporosis and elucidate its mechanisms in modulating the bone status. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the osteoblast differentiation process with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, ethanol extract of Agastache rugosa (EEAR) and its compounds increased the expression of the proteins and genes of the osteoblast differentiation-related markers such as Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and β-catenin along with the elevation of calcium deposits. An ovariectomized mouse model was utilized to determine the impact of EEAR extract on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Twelve weeks of AR treatment suppressed the loss of bone strength, which was observed through micro-computed tomography. AR elevated osteogenic markers in the bone marrow cells, and collagen type 1 alpha 1 in the distal femoral bone. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of cecal gut microbiomes demonstrated that AR reversed the ovariectomy-induced changes in the gut microbiomes. CONCLUSION: Ethanol extract of Agastache rugosa has a therapeutic effect on postmenopausal osteoporosis via bone morphogenic protein, transforming growth factor β, and Wnt signaling pathway. It also increases the diversity of gut microbiota. Therefore, these data suggest that EEAR could be a potential candidate to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis.