Alternative ligands for thyroid hormone receptors.


Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Querétaro, Qro, Mexico. Electronic address: [Email]


Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that activate or repress gene transcription, resulting in the regulation of numerous physiological programs. While 3,3',5-L-triiodothyronine is the TR cognate ligand, these receptors can also be activated by various alternative ligands, including endogenous and synthetic molecules capable of inducing diverse active receptor conformations that influence thyroid hormone-dependent signaling pathways. This review mainly discusses current knowledge on 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyroacetic acid, two endogenous molecules that bind to TRs and regulate gene expression; and the molecular interactions between TRs and ligands, like synthetic thyromimetics developed to target specific TR isoforms for tissue-specific regulation of thyroid-related disorders, or endocrine disruptors that have allowed the design of new analogues and revealed essential amino acids for thyroid hormone binding.


3,5-T2,Alternative ligand,TRIAC,Thyroid hormone analogs,Thyroid hormone receptors,Thyroid hormones,