Wheat landrace accessions were chosen from areas of the world with historical European wheat stem sawfly (Cephus pygmaeus L.) selection pressure to develop six recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Molecular maps were constructed, and resistance due to antibiosis and antixenosis was assessed at sites in Montana naturally infested by Cephus cinctus Norton, the wheat stem sawfly (WSS). Novel QTLs were identified along with QTL previously identified in elite germplasm. A newly identified QTL on chromosome 1B provided a new source for pith-filled solid stems. An allele for resistance on chromosome 4A unrelated to solid stems was identified in four of the six RIL populations. A landrace from Turkey, PI 166471, contained alleles at three QTLs causing high levels of larval mortality. None of the QTLs were related to stem solidness, but their combined effect provided resistance similar to that observed in a solid-stemmed check cultivar. These results show the utility of genetic populations derived from geographically targeted landrace accessions to identify new alleles for insect resistance. New PCR-based molecular markers were developed for introgression of novel alleles for WSS resistance into elite lines. Comparison of results with previous analysis of elite cultivars addresses changes in allele frequencies during the wheat breeding process.