Anthocyanins and metabolites resolve TNF-α-mediated production of E-selectin and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells.

Affiliation

Università degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences- Division of Human Nutrition, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

This study investigated the capacity of an anthocyanin-rich fraction (ACN-RF) from blueberry, single anthocyanins (cyanidin, delphinidin and malvidin-3-glucoside; Cy, Dp and Mv-3-glc) and related metabolites (protocatechuic, gallic and syringic acid; PrA, GA and SA) to resolve an inflammation-driven adhesion of monocytes (THP-1) on endothelial cell (HUVECs) and secretion of cell adhesion molecules E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). The adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs was induced by tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α, 100 ng mL-1). Subsequently, ACN-RF, single ACNs and metabolites (from 0.01 to 10 μg mL-1) were incubated for 24 h. The adhesion was measured in a fluorescence spectrophotometer. E-selectin and VCAM-1 were quantified by ELISA. No toxicological effects were observed for the compounds and the doses tested. ACN-RF and Mv-3-glc reducedTHP-1 adhesion at all the concentrations with the maximum effect at 10 μg/ml (-60.2% for ACNs and-33.9% for Mv-3-glc). Cy-3-glc decreased the adhesion by about 41.8% at 10 μg mL-1, while PrA and GA reduced the adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs both at 1 and at 10 μg mL-1 (-29.5% and -44.3% for PrA, respectively, and -18.0%and -59.3% for GA, respectively). At the same concentrations a significant reduction of E-selectin, but notVCAM-1 levels, was documented. No effect was observed following Dp-3-glc and SA supplementation. Overall, ACNs and metabolites seem to resolve, in a dose-dependent manner, the inflammation-driven adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs by decreasing E-selectin concentrations. Interestingly, Mv-3-glc was active at physiologically relevant concentrations.

Keywords

Anthocyanins,Atherogenesis,Cell culture,E-selectin,Metabolites,VCAM-1,

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