Antibiotic-Related Changes in Microbiome: The Hidden Villain behind Colorectal Carcinoma Immunotherapy Failure.

Affiliation

Velikova T(1), Krastev B(2), Lozenov S(3), Gencheva R(2), Peshevska-Sekulovska M(4), Nikolaev G(5), Peruhova M(4).
Author information:
(1)Department of Clinical Immunology, University Hospital Lozenetz, Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Kozyak 1 Str., 1407 Sofia, Bulgaria.
(2)Clinic of Medical Oncology, MHAT Hospital for Women Health Nadezhda, 1330 Sofia, Bulgaria.
(3)Laboratory for Control and Monitoring of the Antibiotic Resistance, National Centre for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, 26 Yanko Sakazov Blvd, 1504 Sofia, Bulgaria.
(4)Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Lozenetz, Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Kozyak 1 Str., 1407 Sofia, Bulgaria.
(5)Faculty of Biology, Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, 1407 Sofia, Bulgaria.

Abstract

The interplay between drugs and microbiota is critical for successful treatment. An accumulating amount of evidence has identified the significant impact of intestinal microbiota composition on cancer treatment response, particularly immunotherapy. The possible molecular pathways of the interaction between immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and the microbiome can be used to reverse immunotherapy tolerance in cancer by using various kinds of interventions on the intestinal bacteria. This paper aimed to review the data available on how the antibiotic-related changes in human microbiota during colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment can affect and determine ICI treatment outcomes. We also covered the data that support the potential intimate mechanisms of both local and systemic immune responses induced by changes in the intestinal microbiota. However, further better-powered studies are needed to thoroughly assess the clinical significance of antibiotic-induced alteration of the gut microbiota and its impact on CRC treatment by direct observations of patients receiving antibiotic treatment.