Antibiotics for urethral catheterization in children undergoing cystography: retrospective evaluation of a single-center cohort of pediatric non-toilet-trained patients.

Affiliation

Department of Woman, Child and of General and Specialized Surgery, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Luigi De Crecchio 2, 80138, Naples, Italy. [Email]

Abstract

Antibiotics are often used to prevent post-catheterization urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients undergoing cystography. However, there is no universally accepted protocol and the literature data are conflicting. We aimed to determine prevalence and risk factors of post-cystography UTIs in non-toilet-trained children. We retrospectively evaluated 216 non-toilet-trained children not assuming antibiotics when undergoing cystography. Only the patients with dilated vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) assumed antibiotics just after the exam (within 15 min). One hundred eleven patients without vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) and 29 patients with non-dilated VUR did not receive post-procedure antibiotics and did not develop UTIs. Out of the 76 patients who showed a dilated VUR and received post-procedure antibiotics, only 5 (6.6%) developed a UTI. The most significant factor associated with post-cystography UTIs was the presence of dilated VUR (p = 0.005) with the presence of bilateral VUR also being significant (p = 0.02).Conclusion: Patients without dilated VUR or bilateral VUR could not benefit from antibiotic prophylaxis for cystography. What is Known: • There is no universally accepted protocol about antibiotic administration in children undergoing cystography. • Literature data are conflicting. What is New: • Among 216 non-toilet-trained children undergoing cystography, 111 patients without vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) and 29 patients with non-dilated VUR did not receive post-procedure antibiotics and did not develop UTIs. Out of the 76 patients who showed a dilated VUR and received post-procedure antibiotics, only 5 (6.6%) developed a UTI. • The most significant factor associated to post-cystography UTIs was the presence of dilated VUR (p = 0.005) with presence of bilateral VUR also being significant (p = 0.02).

Keywords

Children,Cystography,Urinary catheterization,Urinary tract infections,Vesico-ureteral reflux,

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