Application of ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection for the determination of trace cyanide in biological samples, including breast milk.


Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland. Electronic address: [Email]


Cyanide (CN) is the biomarker of exposure to the components of tobacco smoke, although its presence in biological samples is also due to the consumption of products containing cyanogenic glycosides. In this work, we determine the concentration of the free cyanide in urine, saliva and breast milk matrices, using ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD). IC-PAD is an emerging method, with only few documented applications in urine and saliva, and the presented determination in breast milk is its first published report for any method. The biological samples, which were obtained from women staying in a maternity ward, showed cyanide concentrations spanning 1.82-98.47 μg L-1. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, the IC-PAD system exhibited satisfactory repeatability (R < 3%, n = 3) and good linearity in the range of 1-100 μg L-1. Thus, it proved to be an effective tool for monitoring trace cyanide concentration in a series of human body fluid matrices, including breast milk. This last matrix is especially important due to the possible effect on infant health related to the mothers' smoking habits.


Breast milk,Cyanide,Ion chromatography,Pregnancy,Saliva,Tobacco smoke,Urine,