Assessment of Tetrabromobisphenol and Hexabromocyclododecanes exposure and risk characterization using occurrence data in foods.

Affiliation

Food Contaminants Division, Department of Food Safety Evaluation, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Osong-eup, Cheongwon-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do, 363-700, South Korea. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) are two of the most used BFRs and they have cumulated in the environment. TBBPA and HBCDs in food were determined and their risks were assessed. The analytical method used was validated in different food categories, and the performance parameters were acceptable based on the criteria of AOAC. Fish and cephalopods were contaminated with TBBPA higher than other foods, and fish contained higher levels of HBCDs than other foods. α-HBCD was the predominant diastereomer in fish and meat and had strong correlations with HBCDs in fish and cephalopods. HBCDs accumulated easier than TBBPA in food. People were exposed to TBBPA from 0.125 ng kg-1 b.w. day-1 to 0.284 ng kg-1 b.w. day-1 and HBCDs from 0.353 ng kg-1 b.w. day-1 to 1.006 ng kg-1 b.w. day-1 via food and air. Food mainly contributed to exposure to TBBPA and HBCDs and vegetables were the main contributors for exposure to TBBPA and HBCDs in food. MOEs for the whole population were over 100, and the risks of exposure to TBBPA and HBCDs from food and the environment were of low concern to public health.

Keywords

Brominated flame retardants,Determination,Hexabromocyclododecane,Persistent organic pollutants,Risk characterization,Tetrabromobisphenol A,

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