Ball AL(#)(1), Bloch KM(#)(2), Rainbow L(3), Liu X(3), Kenny J(3), Lyon JJ(4), Gregory R(3), Alfirevic A(#)(2), Chadwick AE(5). Author information:
(1)Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, MRC Centre for Drug Safety
Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
(2)The Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and
Therapeutics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
(3)Centre for Genomic Research, Institute of Integrative Biology, University of
Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
(4)GSK GlaxoSmithKline, Safety Assessment, Ware, UK.
(5)Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, MRC Centre for Drug Safety
Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. [Email]
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is highly polymorphic and encodes 13 proteins which are critical to the production of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. As mtDNA is maternally inherited and undergoes negligible recombination, acquired mutations have subdivided the human population into several discrete haplogroups. Mitochondrial haplogroup has been found to significantly alter mitochondrial function and impact susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Despite these findings, there are currently limited models to assess the effect of mtDNA variation upon susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Platelets offer a potential personalised model of this variation, as their anucleate nature offers a source of mtDNA without interference from the nuclear genome. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the effect of mtDNA variation upon mitochondrial function and drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in a platelet model. The mtDNA haplogroup of 383 healthy volunteers was determined using next-generation mtDNA sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). Subsequently, 30 of these volunteers from mitochondrial haplogroups H, J, T and U were recalled to donate fresh, whole blood from which platelets were isolated. Platelet mitochondrial function was tested at basal state and upon treatment with compounds associated with both mitochondrial dysfunction and adverse drug reactions, flutamide, 2-hydroxyflutamide and tolcapone (10-250 μM) using extracellular flux analysis. This study has demonstrated that freshly-isolated platelets are a practical, primary cell model, which is amenable to the study of drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Specifically, platelets from donors of haplogroup J have been found to have increased susceptibility to the inhibition of complex I-driven respiration by 2-hydroxyflutamide. At a time when individual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions is not fully understood, this study provides evidence that inter-individual variation in mitochondrial genotype could be a factor in determining sensitivity to mitochondrial toxicants associated with costly adverse drug reactions.
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