OBJECTIVE : DNA and RNA oxidative damage occurs during sepsis. Higher urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels (from oxidation of guanosine from DNA) have been found in non-surviving patients than in surviving septic patients. However, the relation between DNA and RNA oxidative damage and mortality in septic patients has never been published; thus, the objective of this study was to determine the existence of this association. METHODS : This prospective and observational study including septic patients was conducted in 8 Spanish Intensive Care Units. Serum concentrations of the three oxidizied guanine species (OGS) (8-OHdG from DNA, 8-hydroxyguanosine from RNA, and 8-hydroxyguanine from DNA or RNA) were determined, and malondialdehyde (to estimate lipid peroxidation) in the diagnosis of sepsis. Mortality at 30 days was the end-point study. RESULTS : Non-surviving patients (n = 78) compared to surviving patients (n = 139) showed higher serum concentrations of OGS (p = .004) and malondialdehyde (p < .001). Simultaneously, an association between serum OGS concentrations and mortality in logistic regression analysis was found (OR = 1.105; 95% CI = 1.024-1.193; p = .01), and a positive correlation between serum levels of OGS and malondialdehyde (rho = 0.21; p = .002). CONCLUSIONS : The new findings from our study were that oxidative DNA and RNA damage in septic patients was associated with mortality and lipid peroxidation.