BACKGROUND : Lower calcaneal speed of sound may be related to sarcopenia because sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis show a linked relationship in older adults. The purpose of this study is to clarify whether the speed of sound of calcaneal bone assessed by quantitative ultrasound is associated with sarcopenia in a community-dwelling older adult population. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional observational study. The participants in the study were recruited from a group of individuals who had registered for an annual town-sponsored medical check-up. The inclusion criteria for participation in the study were (1) aged older than 40 years, (2) living independently, and (3) able to walk without assistance. Those who had nursing care insurance were excluded. Four hundred sixty-seven residents (182 men, 285 women) were registered in the study. Demographic information, fall history, muscle mass index, grip strength, and gait speed were assessed. The speed of sound through the calcaneal bone was evaluated using a CM-200 sonometer. The assessment for sarcopenia is based on the recommendations of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. RESULTS : Speed of sound was positively correlated with muscle mass index and gait speed in men, and was positively correlated with grip strength and gait speed in women, when adjusted for age and body mass index. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex and other confounders, speed of sound was independently related with lower gait speed and sarcopenia in women. Speed of sound under 1470.5 m/sec had discriminated for sarcopenia in females. CONCLUSIONS : We propose that the speed of sound of calcaneal bone may be used to screen for sarcopenia in women. Sarcopenia should be considered if the speed of sound value is less than 1470.5 m/s in older women.