Some studies have revealed thyrotoxicity of phthalates; however, associations of phthalate exposure with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) remain unclear. We conducted a pair-matching case-control study of 111 PTC cases and 111 age- and sex-matched non-PTC controls to examine associations between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and PTC. Phthalate metabolites were determined in fasting urine specimens by ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After adjusting for potential confounders and other phthalate metabolites, the concentrations of the sum of di (2-ethylhexly) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites in urine were positively associated with PTC [odds ratio (OR) = 5.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.61-17.83], suggesting the effect of phthalates exposure on PTC development. The findings require confirmation.