Astrocyte-immune cell interactions in physiology and pathology.

Affiliation

Han RT(1), Kim RD(2), Molofsky AV(3), Liddelow SA(4).
Author information:
(1)Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences/Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address: [Email]
(2)Neuroscience Institute, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: [Email]
(3)Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences/Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address: [Email]
(4)Neuroscience Institute, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Astrocytes play both physiological and pathological roles in maintaining central nervous system (CNS) function. Here, we review the varied functions of astrocytes and how these might change in subsets of reactive astrocytes. We review the current understanding of astrocyte interactions with microglia and the vasculature and protective barriers in the central nervous system as well as highlight recent insights into physiologic and reactive astrocyte sub-states identified by transcriptional profiling. Our goal is to stimulate inquiry into how these molecular identifiers link to specific functional changes in astrocytes and to define the implications of these heterogeneous molecular and functional changes in brain function and pathology. Defining these complex interactions has the potential to yield new therapies in CNS injury, infection, and disease.