Azimi P(1), Yazdanian T(2), Benzel EC(3), Azimi A(4), Montazeri A(5).


Azimi P(1), Yazdanian T(2), Benzel EC(3), Azimi A(4), Montazeri A(5).
Author information:
(1)NeuroScience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Arabi Ave, Daneshjoo Blvd, Velenjak, 19839-63113, Tehran, Iran. [Email]
(2)School of Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
(3)Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.
(4)Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
(Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran.
(5)Mental Health Research Group, Health Metrics Research Centre, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.


PURPOSE: To explore the effectiveness and advantage of three-dimensional (3D)-printed navigation templates (3DPN-template) assisted in cervical spine fusion (CSF) surgery as compared to conventional surgery. METHODS: An electronic literature search in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane was conducted for studies of 3DPN-templates in CSF up to May 2020. Outcome measures as the accuracy rate, operation time, intra-operative blood loss, and fluoroscopy used, associated with CSF were extracted. Mean difference based on changes was quantified using Hedges' g. RESULTS: From 4414 potentially relevant studies, 61 full-text publications were screened. Thirteen studies comprising 330 cases with 1323 screw placements were eligible for inclusion. For template group, pooled estimates were as follows: 97.3% accuracy rate for screw placement, 144.7 min for operating time, 273.6 ml for blood loss, and 3.2 min for fluoroscopic times. A significantly positive difference was observed between the template group compared to control group in terms of accuracy rate of screw placement (Z = 5.3), operation time (Z = 2.41), intra-operative blood loss (Z = 2.64), and fluoroscopic times (Z = 3.64) (all, P value < 0.0001). Risk of bias for studies under review was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), and 11 studies were found as having high quality. Overall, funnel plot and Begg's test did not indicate obvious publication bias. CONCLUSION: The 3D-printed navigation template in the cervical surgery can improve accuracy of pedicle screw placement and consequently improve outcomes. In future, multi-center efforts are needed to validate the relationships found in this review.