Be Aware of Organophosphate Diesters as Direct Sources in Addition to Organophosphate Ester Metabolites in Food Supplies.

Affiliation

Zhao N(1), Fu J(2), Liu Y(1), Wang P(1), Su X(1), Li X(1).
Author information:
(1)Institute of Quality Standard and Testing Technology for Agro-Products, The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
(CAAS), Beijing 100081, China.
(2)State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Abstract

The substantial application of organophosphate triesters (tri-OPEs) may lead to a concentration escalation of their major metabolites, organophosphate diesters (di-OPEs) in animal-derived and plant-derived animal protein supplement feeds (APFs). APFs are major food for raised animals and may bring OPEs into the food supply. In the present study, the concentrations of Σ8di-OPEs in animal-derived and plant-derived APFs were in the range of 1.98-182 ng/g dw (average: 39.2 ng/g dw). Meat meal had the highest average concentrations of di-OPEs (52.1 ng/g dw), followed by blood meal (49.9 ng/g), feather meal (23.3 ng/g dw), and plant-derived feeds (18.3 ng/g dw). The concentrations of di-OPEs were at the same order of magnitude as those of tri-OPEs in APFs. Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) was the major contributor in blood meal, feather meal, and plant-derived APFs, while dimethyl phosphate dominated in meat meal. The ratios of di-OPEs/tri-OPEs (Rdi/tri) displayed large variability, ranging from 0 for the bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate-tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate pair to 175 for the BDCIPP-tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate pair, which indicated that the metabolism capacities and environmental sources for di-OPEs are diverse in APFs. Different Rdi/tri between APFs and similar food matrices implied that di-OPEs may have different environmental sources. The similar Rdi/tri values for some of the di-/tri-OPE pairs among APFs and dust samples indicated that dust may be a direct exogenous source of OPE exposure in some APF matrices. Future studies should simultaneously focus on tri- and di-OPEs, together of which may reflect the actual exposure to OPEs through the food supply.