Bio-isosteric replacement of amide group with 1,2,3-triazole in phenacetin improves the toxicology and efficacy of phenacetin-triazole conjugates (PhTCs).

Affiliation

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar, MP, India. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

OBJECTIVE : Inflammatory algesia and pyresia are common pathological consequences of physiological defense. Phenacetin introduced as effective analgesic anti-pyretic agent, was proscribed from therapeutic use because of associated systemic toxicity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potency of 1,2,3-triazole conjugation in reducing toxicity and increasing efficacy of the phenacetin nucleus.
METHODS : The amide bond implicated as the cause of phenacetin toxicity was bioisosterically replaced with 1,2,3-triazoles to yield a series of PhTCs(PhTC1, PhTC2 and PhTC3). The toxicology of the synthesized conjugates in reference to phenacetin was evaluated in accordance with OECD test guidelines 420, 425 and 407. For the purpose of evaluating anti-inflammatory potency carrageenan induced paw edema and croton oil induced ear edema models were evaluated. Anti-nociceptive efficacy was assessed using Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing experimental models. For anti-pyretic efficacy, the conjugates were submitted to Brewer's yeast antipyretic assay.
RESULTS : Toxicological examination of PhTCs in comparison to phenacetin revealed that, phenacetin treatment caused considerable nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in experimental models PhTCs were devoid of such toxic manifestations. Results of pharmacological assays showed that the entire series of PhTCs possessed better anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and anti-pyretic potential than phenacetin. Furthermore it was revealed that the pharmacological profile of PhTC1 with triazole substitution at para position of the phenol ring exhibited potency even better than that exhibited by the reference standards.
CONCLUSIONS : Bioisosteric replacement of amide bond by 1,2,3-triazole in the phenacetin moiety yields conjugates with superior efficacy and diminished toxicity, thus opening neo avenues in treatment of inflammatory syndromes.

Keywords

1,2,3-triazole,Amide bond,Analgesic,Anti-inflammatory,Anti-pyretic,Phenacetin,Toxicity,