Biodegradation Potential and Ecotoxicity Assessment in Soil Extracts Amended with Phenoxy Acid Herbicide (2,4-D) and a Structurally-Similar Plant Secondary Metabolite (Ferulic Acid).


Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237, Lodz, Poland. [Email]


Phenoxy acid 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acid) is one of the most commonly-used herbicide in agriculture. Biodegradation of 2,4-D can be stimulated by structurally-related plant secondary metabolites such as ferulic acid (FA). The aim of this study is to: (1) assess the potential of indigenous soil bacteria to degrade 2,4-D in the presence of FA by PCR analysis of functional tfdA genes, (2) to determine the influence of 2,4-D and FA on samples ecotoxicity using Phytotoxkit® and Microtox® biotests. The detection of tfdA genes varied depending on the enrichment of samples with FA. FA suppressed detection of the tfdA genes, 100 µM 2,4-D induced higher detection of studied amplicons, while 500 µM 2,4-D delayed their detection. The ecotoxicity response was specific and differed between plants (PE% Lepidium sativum >  Sinapis alba >  Sorghum saccharatum) and bacteria (PE% up to 99% for Vibrio fischeri). Our findings confirm that 2,4-D and FA had a toxic influence on the used organisms.


2,4-D,Biodegradation,Ecotoxicity,Ferulic acid,Plant secondary metabolites,tfdA gene,

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