Biomarkers of human gut microbiota diversity and dysbiosis.


Rüb AM(1), Tsakmaklis A(1), Gräfe SK(1), Simon MC(2), Vehreschild MJ(3), Wuethrich I(4).
Author information:
(1)Department I of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
(2)Department of Nutrition & Food Sciences, Nutrition & Microbiota, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
(3)Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
(4)Department of Biosystems Science & Engineering, ETH Zurich, Basel, Switzerland.


The association of gut microbiota dysbiosis with various human diseases is being substantiated with increasing evidence. Metabolites derived from both, microbiota and the human host play a central role in disease susceptibility and disease progression by extensively modulating host physiology and metabolism. Several of these metabolites have the potential to serve as diagnostic biomarkers for monitoring disease states in conjunction with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. In this narrative review we evaluate the potential of trimethylamine-N-oxide, short-chain fatty acids, 3-indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, secondary bile acids, hippurate, human β-defensin-2, chromogranin A, secreted immunoglobulins and zonulin to serve as biomarkers for metabolite profiling and diagnostic suitability for dysbiosis and disease.