Biosynthesis of Raffinose and Stachyose from Sucrose via an In Vitro Multienzyme System.


National Engineering Laboratory for Industrial Enzymes, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, China [Email]


Herein, we present a biocatalytic method to produce raffinose and stachyose using sucrose as the substrate. An in vitro multienzyme system was developed using five enzymes, namely, sucrose synthase (SUS), UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (GalE), galactinol synthase (GS), raffinose synthase (RS), and stachyose synthase (STS), and two intermedia, namely, UDP and inositol, which can be recycled. This reaction system produced 11.1 mM raffinose using purified enzymes under optimal reaction conditions and substrate concentrations. Thereafter, a stepwise cascade reaction strategy was employed to circumvent the instability of RS and STS in this system, and a 4.2-fold increase in raffinose production was observed. The enzymatic cascade reactions were then conducted using cell extracts to avoid the need for enzyme purification and supplementation with UDP. Such modification further increased raffinose production to 86.6 mM and enabled the synthesis of 61.1 mM stachyose. The UDP turnover number reached 337. Finally, inositol in the reaction system was recycled five times, and 255.8 mM raffinose (128.9 g/liter) was obtained.IMPORTANCE Soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) have elicited considerable attention because of their potential applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. This study demonstrates an alternative method to produce raffinose and stachyose, which are the major bioactive components of SBOS, from sucrose via an in vitro enzyme system. High concentrations of galactinol, raffinose, and stachyose were synthesized with the aid of a stepwise cascade reaction process, which can successfully address the issue of mismatched enzyme characteristics of an in vitro metabolic engineering platform. The biocatalytic approach presented in this work may enable the synthesis of other valuable galactosyl oligosaccharides, such as verbascose and higher homologs, which are difficult to obtain through plant extraction.


in vitro metabolic engineering,multienzyme system,soybean oligosaccharides,stepwise cascade reaction,sucrose,