Bipolar affective disorder and borderline personality disorder: Differentiation based on the history of early life stress and psychoneuroendocrine measures.


Department of Neuroscience and Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil; King's College London, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience & South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AZ, UK. Electronic address: [Email]


Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Bipolar Affective Disorder (BD) have clinical characteristics in common which often make their differential diagnosis difficult. The history of early life stress (ELS) may be a differentiating factor between BPD and BD, as well as its association with clinical manifestations and specific neuroendocrine responses in each of these diagnoses.


Abuse and neglect,Bipolar affective disorder,Borderline personality disorder,Cortisol,Early life stress,Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis,