Bisphenol A removal and degradation pathways in microorganisms with probiotic properties.

Affiliation

Kyrila G(1), Katsoulas A(1), Schoretsaniti V(1), Rigopoulos A(1), Rizou E(1), Doulgeridou S(1), Sarli V(2), Samanidou V(3), Touraki M(4).
Author information:
(1)Laboratory of General Biology, Division of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
(2)Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
(3)Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Physical, Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
(A.U.TH.), 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
(4)Laboratory of General Biology, Division of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a constituent of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, widely applied on food packaging materials. As BPA exposure results in health hazards, its efficient removal is of crucial importance. In our study five potentially probiotic microorganisms, namely Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were tested for their toxicity tolerance to BPA and their BPA removal ability. Although BPA toxicity, evident on all microorganisms, presented a correlation to both BPA addition time and its concentration, all strains exhibited BPA-removal ability with increased removal rate between 0 and 24 h of incubation. BPA degradation resulted in the formation of two dimer products in cells while the compounds Hydroquinone (HQ), 4-Hydroxyacetophenone (HAP), 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) and 4-Isopropenylphenol (PP) were identified in the culture medium. In the proposed BPA degradation pathways BPA adducts formation appears as a common pattern, while BPA decomposition as well as the formation, and the levels of its end products present differences among microorganisms. The BPA degradation ability of the tested beneficial microorganisms demonstrates their potential application in the bioremediation of BPA contaminated foods and feeds and provides a means to suppress the adverse effects of BPA on human and animal health.