Anthropometric indicators can predict the development of diabetes among adults. Among them, a new indicator (Body Shape Index) was developed. Several cohort observational studies have demonstrated that A Body Shape Index (ABSI) is a prominent indicator for mortality and morbidity. Nevertheless, the predictive level of ABSI for diabetes varied among different ethnicities. This study aimed to assess the predictive level of ABSI for diabetes compared to BMI in the Qatari population. Date from 2536 Qatari adults aged 20-79 years attending the Qatar Biobank Study were used. Body height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Blood samples were measured for glucose. The association between ABSI, BMI, and diabetes was assessed using a logistic regression. Both ABSI and BMI were positively associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounding factors. ABSI had a stronger association with diabetes than BMI. Per 1 SD increment of ABSI and BMI, the z-score had an odds ratios of 1.85 (1.54-2.23) and 1.34 (1.18-1.51) for diabetes, respectively. ABSI and BMI are significantly associated with diabetes in the Qatari population. ABSI is a better predictor for the risk of diabetes than BMI after the adjustment for age, gender, education, and physical activity.