Sharma A(1), Ahmad Farouk I(1), Lal SK(1)(2). Author information:
(1)School of Science, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Selangor
(2)Tropical Medicine & Biology Multidisciplinary Platform, Monash University
Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Selangor DE, Malaysia.
Three major outbreaks of the coronavirus, a zoonotic virus known to cause respiratory disease, have been reported since 2002, including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and the most recent 2019-nCoV, or more recently known as SARS-CoV-2. Bats are known to be the primary animal reservoir for coronaviruses. However, in the past few decades, the virus has been able to mutate and adapt to infect humans, resulting in an animal-to-human species barrier jump. The emergence of a novel coronavirus poses a serious global public health threat and possibly carries the potential of causing a major pandemic outbreak in the naïve human population. The recent outbreak of COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China has infected over 36.5 million individuals and claimed over one million lives worldwide, as of 8 October 2020. The novel virus is rapidly spreading across China and has been transmitted to 213 other countries/territories across the globe. Researchers have reported that the virus is constantly evolving and spreading through asymptomatic carriers, further suggesting a high global health threat. To this end, current up-to-date information on the coronavirus evolution and SARS-CoV-2 modes of transmission, detection techniques and current control and prevention strategies are summarized in this review.
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