Cardiovascular Three-Dimensional Printing in Non-Congenital Percutaneous Interventions.


Serviço de Cardiologia, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address: [Email]


Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is emerging as a potential new tool for the planning of medical interventions. In the last few years, increasing data have accumulated on its ability to guide interventional cardiology procedures, going beyond initial reports in congenital heart disease settings. In fact, there is compelling evidence on the advantages of a 3D-printed guided strategy for left atrial appendage closure, suggesting a high success rate with optimal device selection and lower radiation load. Furthermore, there is emerging experience in aortic root printing, which may improve the success rate and safety of transcatheter aortic valve replacement and may be of particular interest for targeting low-risk populations. Additionally, there are stimulating reports in mitral valve intervention, setting the tone for this new field in cardiovascular percutaneous intervention. In this clinically oriented paper, we will review current 3D printing use in interventional cardiology and we will address future directions, with a focus on procedural planning and medical simulation.


3D printing,Percutaneous coronary intervention,Simulation training,Structural heart disease,

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