Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are first-line drugs for lung cancers with activating EGFR mutations. Although first- and second-generation EGFR-TKIs were standard first-line treatments, acquired resistance (AR) to these drugs is almost inevitable. Cell line models have been widely used to explore the molecular mechanisms of AR to first- and second-generation EGFR-TKIs. Many research groups, including ours, have established AR cell lines that harbor the EGFR T790M secondary mutation, MET gene amplification, or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features, which are all found in clinical specimens obtained from TKI-refractory lesions. Currently, many oncologists prescribe osimertinib, a third-generation EGFR-TKI that can overcome T790M-mediated resistance, as a first-line TKI. Although few clinical data are available about AR mechanisms that arise when osimertinib is used as a first-line therapy, many research groups have established cell lines with AR to osimertinib and have reported on their AR mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the findings on AR mechanisms against first-line osimertinib obtained from analyses of cell line models.
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