Challenges facing HIV treatment as prevention in Brazil: an analysis drawing on literature on testing.


Laboratório de Educação em Ambiente e Saúde, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz. Av. Brasil 4365/Pavilhão Lauro Travassos, Manguinhos. 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brasil. [Email]


According to current global AIDS guidelines, HIV testing is key to the success of the 'treatment as prevention' (TasP) strategy and the control of AIDS. In view of Brazil's commitment to these guidelines, this article characterizes the principles and justifications underpinning TasP and discusses implementation challenges. The analysis draws on a systematic review of the literature (2005 to 2015) on recruitment and testing strategies for men who have sex with men. This approach was adopted based on the assumption that current knowledge on HIV testing can offer valuable insights into the foundations of global AIDS policies and their uptake in local contexts. Based on the analysis of the 65 articles selected, we suggest that TasP represents a shift in the AIDS prevention paradigm. There is an overlap between prevention and care and the new approach places major emphasis on biomedical and psychological knowledge. The TasP approach fails to address the factors associated with HIV vulnerability and the stigma surrounding AIDS and undermines the participation of activists and PLWHA as autonomous producers of preventive of preventive practices. We argue that, to ensure the effective implementation of TasP in Brazil, it is necessary to discuss issues such as the protection of human rights and the structural problems facing Brazil's public health system.