Duke/NSF Center for Emerging Cardiovascular Technologies, Emeritus Faculty of Surgery and of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University School of Medicine and Graduate School, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address: [Email]
Clinical BAV manifestations pertain to faulty aortic valve (AOV) function, the associated aortopathy, and other complications such as endocarditis, thrombosis and thromboembolism. BAV arises during valvulogenesis when 2 of the 3 leaflets/cusps of the AOV are fused together. Ensuing asymmetric BAV morphologies alter downstream ejection jet flow-trajectories. Based on BAV morphologies, ejection-flows exhibit different wall-impingement and scouring patterns in the proximal aorta, with excessive hydrodynamic wall-shear that correlates closely with mural vascular smooth muscle cell and extracellular matrix disruptions, revealing hemodynamic participation in the pathogenesis of BAV-associated aortopathies. Since the embryologic regions implicated in both BAV and aortopathies derive from neural crest cells and second heart field cells, there may exist a common multifactorial/polygenic embryological basis linking the abnormalities. The use of Electronic Health Records - encompassing integrated NGS variant panels and phenotypic data - in clinical studies could speed-up comprehensive understanding of multifactorial genetic-phenotypic and environmental factor interactions. This Survey represents the first in a 2-article pluridisciplinary work. Taken in toto, the series covers hemodynamic/morphomechanical and environmental (milieu intérieur) aspects in Part 1, and molecular, genetic and associated epigenetic aspects in Part 2. Together, Parts 1-2 should serve as a reference-milestone and driver for further pluridisciplinary research and its urgent translations in the clinical setting.