Cognitive functioning in Deaf children using Cochlear implants.

Affiliation

Almomani F(1), Al-Momani MO(2), Garadat S(3), Alqudah S(4), Kassab M(5)(6), Hamadneh S(7), Rauterkus G(8)(9), Gans R(8).
Author information:
(1)Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, 22110, Jordan. [Email]
(2)Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
(3)Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
(4)Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, 22110, Jordan.
(5)Faculty of Nursing, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, 22110, Jordan.
(6)Associate
(Clinical Fellow) in Nursing at University of Technology, Sydney
(UTS), Ultimo, Australia.
(7)Department of Maternal and Child Health, Nursing School, Al Al Bayt University, Mafraq, Jordan.
(8)American Institute of Balance, Clear Water, Pinellas Park, FL, USA.
(9)Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cognitive abilities like language, memory, reasoning, visualization, and perceptual functioning shape human action and are considered critical to the successful interaction with the environment. Alternatively, hearing loss can disrupt a child's ability to communicate, and negatively impact cognitive development. Cochlear implants (CI) restore auditory input thereby supporting communication and may enhance cognitive performance. This study compares general cognitive development after cochlear implantation (2017-2019) in two groups of Jordanian children implanted earlier (age:4-6 years, N = 22) and later (7-9 years, N = 16) to the development of randomly selected normal hearing peers (N = 48). DESIGN: Visualization, reasoning, memory, and attention were assessed using the Leiter-R scale at baseline (before implantation), 8 months and 16 months post implantation for children with hearing loss. Same times of testing (baseline, 8 months and 16 months) were used for normal hearing peers. RESULTS: Over the 16-month period, the cognitive improvement of 4-6-year-old deaf children was greater than that of their normal hearing peers on the scales of visualization (5.62 vs. 4.40), reasoning (2.53 vs. 2.38) and memory (17.19 vs. 11.67). while the improvement of 7-9-year-old was less major than that of their normal hearing peers on all scales. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that CI not only enhances communication skills but may improve cognitive functioning in deaf children. However, the extent of this improvement was dependent on age at intervention; current results demonstrated that the children received CI at young ages had better cognitive improvements.