Comparative Analysis of the Expression of Chondroitin Sulfate Subtypes and Their Inhibitory Effect on Axonal Growth in the Embryonic, Adult, and Injured Rat Brains.

Affiliation

Kim MH(1), Park SR(2), Choi BH(3).
Author information:
(1)Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea.
(2)Department of Physiology, Inha University College of Medicine, 100 Inha-ro, Michuhol-gu, Incheon, 22212, Republic of Korea.
(3)Department of Biomedical Sciences, Inha University College of Medicine, 100 Inha-ro, Michuhol-gu, Incheon, 22212, Republic of Korea. [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs) are the primary inhibitory GAGs for neuronal growth after central nervous system (CNS) injury. However, the inhibitory or permissive activity of CS-GAG subtypes is controversial and depends on the physiological needs of CNS tissues. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and effects of CS-GAGs on axonal growth, which was isolated from the brain cortices of normal rat embryo at E18, normal adult rat brain and injured adult rat brain. METHODS: Isolated CS-GAGs from embryo, normal adult, and injured adult rat brains were used for analyzing their effect on attachment and axonal growth using modified spot assay with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants and cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). CS-GAGs were separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the subtypes of CS-GAGs were analyzed. RESULTS: CS-GAGs of all three groups inhibited CGN attachment and axonal growth of DRGs. However, CS-GAGs of normal adult rat brain exhibited higher inhibitory activity than those of the other groups in both assays. When subtypes of CS-GAGs were analyzed using HPLC, CS-A (4S) was the most abundant in all three groups and found in largest amount in normal adult rat brain. In contrast, unsulfated CS (CS0) and CS-C (6S) were more abundant by 3-4-folds in E18 group than in the two adult groups. CONCLUSION: When compared with the normal adult rat brain, injured rat brain showed relatively similar patterns to that of embryonic rat brain at E18 in the expression of CS subtypes and their inhibitory effect on axonal growth. This phenomenon could be due to differential expression of CS-GAGs subtypes causing decrease in the amount of CS-A and mature-type CS proteoglycan core proteins.