Complete plastome sequencing of Allium paradoxum reveals unusual rearrangements and the loss of the ndh genes as compared to Allium ursinum and other onions.


Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, GSP-1, Moscow 119991, Russia; Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, build.1, Moscow 127051, Russia; Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Nobel St. 3, Moscow Region 143026, Russia. Electronic address: [Email]


In this work the complete chloroplast DNAs of Allium paradoxum and Allium ursinum, two edible species of Allium subg. Amerallium (the first lineage), were sequenced, assembled, annotated, and compared with complete Allium plastomes of the second and third evolutionary lines from GenBank database. The A. ursinum plastome contains 90 predicted genes (81 unique) including 5 pseudogenes, while A. paradoxum has 88 predicted genes (79 unique) including 19 pseudogenes. The comparative analysis has revealed that the A. paradoxum plastome differs markedly from those of other species. Due to many deletions, the A. paradoxum plastome is the shortest of known for Allium species, being only 145,819 bp long. The most prominent distinctions are (1) a 4825 bp long local inversion that spans from the ndhE to the rpl32 gene in the small single copy region and (2) pseudogenization, or the loss of all NADH-genes. In contrast, the plastome of A. ursinum - a species from the first evolutionary line (as well as A. paradoxum) - resembles the Allium species of the second and third evolutionary lines, showing no large rearrangements or discrepancies in gene content. It is unclear yet whether only A. paradoxum was affected by some evolutionary events or its close relatives from both sect. Briseis and other sections of Amerallium were altered as well. We speculate the sunlight-intolerant, shade-loving nature of A. paradoxum and the impairment of the ndh genes in its plastome could be interrelated phenomena.


Allium paradoxum,Allium ursinum,Complete chloroplast genome,Genome rearrangement,Inversion,Pseudogenization,ndh genes,

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